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Relationship between diet and metabolic syndrome in people with normal weight

Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in individuals with normal weight: a cross-sectional study

Abstract
Background The results of several papers have confirmed the existence of correlations between an unhealthy diet and the presence of metabolic syndrome. However, relationships between eating habits and metabolic obesity with normal weight have not yet been sufficiently studied. The aim of the study is to determine which dietary patterns are present in individuals with a normal BMI and to find out whether those patterns were connected with the risk of metabolic syndrome and its features. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 2479 subjects with a normal weight (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), aged between 37–66. The study included the evaluation of eating habits, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure tests and the analysis of the collected fasting-blood samples, on the basis of which cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were determined. Dietary patterns were determined by means of factor analysis. Results In the group of individuals with a normal BMI, four dietary patterns were distinguished: “healthy”, “fat, meat and alcohol”, “prudent” and “coca cola, hard cheese and French fries”. After controlling for potential confounders, subjects in the highest tertile of prudent dietary pattern scores had a lower odds ratio for the metabolic obesity normal weight) (odds ratio: 0.69; 95 % CI: 0.53-0.89; p < 0.01) and low HDL cholesterol (odds ratio: 0.77; 95 % CI: 0.59-0.99; p < 0.05), in comparison to those from the lowest tertile, whereas the individuals in the second tertile had a higher odds ratio for the increased blood glucose concentration than those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio: 0.74; 95 % CI: 0.57-0.96; p < 0.05). Conclusion A dietary pattern characterized by a high consumption of fish and whole grains, and a low consumption of refined grains, sugar, sweets and cold cured meat, is connected with lower risk of metabolic obesity normal weight as well as with the lower risk of low HDL cholesterol concentration and increased glucose concentration.
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