Xanthorrhizol, a natural sesquiterpenoid from Curcuma xanthorrhiza, has an anti-metastatic potential in experimental mouse lung metastasis model.
Xanthorrhizol is a sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. In this study, the anti-metastatic activity of xanthorrhizol was evaluated by using an in vivo mouse lung metastasis model and a tumor mass formation assay.Interestingly, xanthorrhizol dramatically inhibited the formation of tumor nodules in the lung tissue and the intra-abdominal tumor mass formation. Next, to examine the mechanism of the anti-metastatic action of xanthorrhizol in the mouse lung metastasis,expression patterns of the several intracellular signaling molecules were evaluated using the lung tissues with tumor nodules. Higher expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were observed in the metastatic group compared with control, but these were attenuated by the treatment of xanthorrhizol. In conclusion, xanthorrhizol exerts anti-metastatic activity in vivo and this effect could be highly linked to the metastasis- related multiplex signal pathway including ERK, COX-2, and MMP-9.