The anti ulcer effect of bisdemethoxy curcumin,a yellow pigment found mainly in rhizomes of Curcuma longa, was
compared with curcumin in gastric ulcer model systems to validate its clinical application as aremedy for peptic ulcer
Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.), an important medicinal spice product traded internationally, is
subjected to adulteration by design or default with powders of related curcumin containing wild species like
Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma malabarica leading to toxicity and poor quality of the produce. The present
study aims at development of specific, sensitive and reproducible Sequence Characterized Amplified Region
(SCAR) markers to detect these adulterants in traded turmeric powder. Two putative RAPD markers, ‘Cur 01’
and ‘Cur 02’, generated by random primers OPA 01 and OPE 18 were identified as C. zedoaria/C. malabarica
specific by comparative RAPD analysis of genuine turmeric and market samples of turmeric powder, C.
zedoaria and C. malabarica. These specific RAPD markers were cloned and sequenced. Two pairs of SCAR
primers were designed from the RAPD markers ‘Cur 01’ and ‘Cur 02’, respectively. Six market samples of
turmeric powder and four simulated standards besides the genuine samples were analyzed using the specific
SCAR markers. Both the SCAR markers detected the presence of C. zedoaria/C. malabarica adulteration in four
market samples and all the simulated standards prepared in different concentrations. The two SCAR markers
developed in the study would be potentially useful for the regulatory agencies to detect C. zedoaria/C.
malabarica adulteration in traded turmeric powder. The analytical strategy being very simple could be used
for large scale screening of turmeric powder samples intended for export and domestic uses.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for discrimination of Curcuma longa, Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Zingiber cassumunar
Turmeric (Curcuma longa), java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) and cassumunar ginger (Zingiber
cassumunar) are widely used in traditional Indonesian medicines (jamu). They have similar color for their
rhizome and possess some similar uses, so it is possible to substitute one for the other. The identification
and discrimination of these closely-related plants is a crucial task to ensure the quality of the raw materials.
Therefore, an analytical method which is rapid, simple and accurate for discriminating these species
using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with some chemometrics methods was
developed. FTIR spectra were acquired in the mid-IR region (4000–400 cm1). Standard normal variate,
first and second order derivative spectra were compared for the spectral data. Principal component
analysis (PCA) and canonical variate analysis (CVA) were used for the classification of the three species.
Samples could be discriminated by visual analysis of the FTIR spectra by using their marker bands.
Discrimination of the three species was also possible through the combination of the pre-processed FTIR
spectra with PCA and CVA, in which CVA gave clearer discrimination. Subsequently, the developed
method could be used for the identification and discrimination of the three closely-related plant species.
A validated stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of Silymarin and Curcumin in various dosage forms
Abstract A new, reliable, sensitive and stability-indicating gradient HPLC method was introduced
for the simultaneous determination of two anti-hepatotoxic polyphenolic drugs (Silymarin and Curcumin).
The method was adapted to analyze both drugs in their dosage forms (tablets and capsules)
with no interference from common excipients. The photo diode array detector was used as a tool for
peak identification and purity confirmation especially that both drugs have several reported peaks.
In order to assess the stability-indicating power of the assay procedure, SIL and CUR were subjected
to different forced degradation studies: acidic, alkaline and neutral hydrolysis, photo-degradation,
oxidative degradation and dry heat. The developed method could efficiently separate the
parent drug peak from the degradation products peaks. The method was validated according to
the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, detection and quantitation limits, accuracy, precision,
specificity, and robustness. Finally, the results of the proposed method for determination of SIL
were statistically compared to the official BP method and no significant difference was found
Anticonvulsant activity of bisabolene sesquiterpenoids of Curcuma longa in zebrafish and mouse seizure models
Turmeric, obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, is used in South Asia as a traditional medicine for the
treatment of epilepsy. To date, in vivo studies on the anticonvulsant activity of turmeric have focused on its
principal curcuminoid, curcumin. However, poor absorption and rapid metabolism have limited the therapeutic
application of curcumin in humans. To explore the therapeutic potential of turmeric for epilepsy further,
we analyzed its anticonvulsant activity in a larval zebrafish seizure assay. Initial experiments revealed
that the anticonvulsant activity of turmeric in zebrafish larvae cannot be explained solely by the effects of
curcumin. Zebrafish bioassay-guided fractionation of turmeric identified bisabolene sesquiterpenoids as additional
anticonvulsants that inhibit PTZ-induced seizures in both zebrafish and mice. Here, we present the
first report of the anticonvulsant properties of bisabolene sesquiterpenoids and provide evidence which warrants
further investigation toward the mechanistic understanding of their neuromodulatory activity.
Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of essential oil isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.
Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in humans
Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (SD 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (SD 2·1) kg/m²) males were randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (SE 3) v. 52 (SE 2) kJ/h, respectively, P=0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P=0·63) and energy balance (P=0·67) also did not differ between the treatments. Finally, horseradish decreased heart rate (P=0·048) and increased diastolic blood pressure (P= 0·049) compared with placebo. In conclusion, no reliable treatment effects on appetite, EI or energy balance were observed, although mustard tended to be thermogenic at this dose. Further studies should explore the possible strength and mechanisms of the potential thermogenic effect of mustard actives, and potential enhancement by, for example, combinations with other food components.
Compositional characteristics of commercial beetroot products and beetroot juice prepared from seven beetroot varieties grown in Upper Austria
Beta vulgaris L. (beetroot) contains high amounts of biologically active substances including betalains and inorganic nitrate. We determined the amounts of various compounds (minerals, betalains, oxalic acid, phenolic acids, and sugars) in juice prepared from seven different beetroot varieties cultivated in Upper Austria. Large differences were found between the varieties for some substances (such as nitrate), whereas others showed only minor variation (certain minerals and sugars). The total betalain content was found to range between 0.8 and 1.3 g/L fresh juice (about 60% betacyanins and 40% betaxanthins) that accounted for 70–100% of the total phenolics content. Other detected phenolics were hydroxycinnamic acids, which accounted for up to 2.6% of total phenolics. Nitrate content varied 10-fold between single varieties. Sugar composition was similar in all varieties with an average total content of about 7.7%, consisting of 95% sucrose. Only minor differences in the concentration of oxalic acid (0.3–0.5 g/L fresh juice) were found between the varieties. In addition, 16 commercial juices and four powders were analyzed for their nitrate contents, as its metabolic product nitric oxide has been reported to provide cardiovascular benefits. Large variations of the nitrate levels, ranging from 0.01 to 2.4 g/L, were found.
Effect of a high fat, high sucrose diet on the promotion of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in male rats: the ameliorative role of three natural compounds
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathophysiology. The clinical features of NAFLD include obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia. Consumption of a diet high in saturated fats and sucrose is an important factor in the increasing occurrence of these metabolic disorders, primarily NAFLD and IR. We sought to assess the role of a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diet in the promotion of NAFLD and to evaluate the effects of quercetin (Q), berberine (BB) and o-coumaric acid (CA) on modulation of these disorders.
Fifty male rats were divided into 2 main groups as follows: group 1 comprised 10 rats fed a standard diet (SD), and group 2 comprised 40 rats fed an HFS diet for 6 weeks and then subdivided equally into 4 groups; one of these groups served as the HFS diet and each of the other three groups received daily supplementation with either Q, CA or BB for 6 weeks.
In the present study, several metabolic disorders were induced in our laboratory animal model, as evidenced by histological and biochemical changes. These alterations included serum and hepatic dyslipidemia (i.e., increased triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein levels), alterations in metabolic enzyme activities (lipase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), histological changes in the liver (micro- and macrovesicular steatosis) and the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in adipose tissue and the liver. Daily oral supplementation with Q, CA or BB for 6 weeks after NAFLD induction had a hypolipidemic action and modulated metabolic markers.
We showed that an HFS diet is able to promote NAFLD, and our results suggest that CA and BB are promising complementary supplements that can ameliorate the metabolic disorders associated with an HFS diet; however, Q requires further investigation.
Keywords: Berberine; High-fat high-sucrose diet; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ; Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Dyslipidemia; O-coumaric acid; Quercetin
The effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The purpose of this review was to examine the effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise performance by systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled human studies. A search of four electronic databases and cross-referencing found 17 studies investigating the effect of inorganic nitrate supplementation on exercise performance that met the inclusion criteria. Beetroot juice and sodium nitrate were the most common supplements, with doses ranging from 300 to 600 mg nitrate and prescribed in a manner ranging from a single bolus to 15 days of regular ingestion. Pooled analysis showed a significant moderate benefit (ES = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.23-1.35) of nitrate supplementation on performance for time to exhaustion tests (p = .006). There was a small but insignificant beneficial effect on performance for time trials (ES = 0.11, 95% CI: -0.16-0.37) and graded exercise tests (ES = 0.26, 95% CI: -0.10-0.62). Qualitative analysis suggested that performance benefits are more often observed in inactive to recreationally active individuals and when a chronic loading of nitrate over several days is undertaken. Overall, these results suggest that nitrate supplementation is associated with a moderate improvement in constant load time to exhaustion tasks. Despite not reaching statistical significance, the small positive effect on time trial or graded exercise performance may be meaningful in an elite sport context. More data are required to clarify the effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise performance and to elucidate the optimal way to implement supplementation.
Dietary nitrate is growing in popularity as a sports nutrition supplement. This article reviews the evidence base for the potential of inorganic nitrate to enhance sports and exercise performance. Inorganic nitrate is present in numerous foodstuffs and is abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot. Following ingestion, nitrate is converted in the body to nitrite and stored and circulated in the blood. In conditions of low oxygen availability, nitrite can be converted into nitric oxide, which is known to play a number of important roles in vascular and metabolic control. Dietary nitrate supplementation increases plasma nitrite concentration and reduces resting blood pressure. Intriguingly, nitrate supplementation also reduces the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise and can, in some circumstances, enhance exercise tolerance and performance. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these effects are reviewed and practical guidelines for safe and efficacious dietary nitrate supplementation are provided
The paracellular pathway between intestinal epithelial cells has become important in our understanding of gastrointestinal and systemic disease. Long thought to be a static non‐regulated barrier to the passage of luminal material, it is now recognised to be a dynamic constantly changing structure with a functional state that is carefully regulated. Luminal organisms can modulate the state of the tight junction through multiple mechanisms and while opening tight junctions may be of benefit for the microflora, it may be deleterious to the host. Abnormal function of this pathway can also be observed in conditions where the structure of the proteins comprising the junction is abnormal.
The functional state of the junction can be assessed by measuring the rate of movement of probes across the junction. This is what is referred to as gastrointestinal permeability testing and there are a variety of means to accomplish this either in vivo or in vitro. By carefully selecting the method used, it is possible to measure the permeability of various sites within the gastrointestinal tract.
For decades a variety of pathological states have been associated with abnormal permeability. Many of these are a consequence of intestinal epithelial damage that is associated with disease but not involved in a causal manner in the genesis of disease. However, in several autoimmune conditions it appears that increased permeability is a constant and early feature of the disease process. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that in some conditions increased permeability is critical to the development of disease as if it is abrogated the disease does not develop. This is particularly true in type 1 diabetes. In other diseases such as Crohn’s disease or coeliac disease, a similar pattern of findings are apparent but the experiment to try and prevent disease by preventing the increase in permeability has not been performed.
Turmericle is a mixture of resveratrol, curcumin, black pepper and powdered coconut oil
Thanks to exciting new research, we can more effectively manage autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory disorders that plague so many people today. This new approach involves the use of two natural compounds, resveratrol and curcumin, which have been found to work better when taken together than separately.
Synergy between resveratrol and curcumin
Resveratrol is a compound derived from Japanese knotweed, and curcumin is derived from the popular curry spice turmeric. Both are well known for their antioxidant qualities.
However, newer research shows that taking them together creates a synergistic effect, making them potent tools for quenching the inflammation and damage associated with autoimmune flare-ups and chronic inflammation.
Successful for many autoimmune, inflammatory disorders
Examples of these disorders include autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s), arthritis, brain fog, gut pain and inflammation, multiple food and chemical sensitivities, fibromyalgia, asthma, eczema and psoriasis, and other conditions related to inflammation or autoimmune disease.
Going beyond TH-1 and TH-2
When we manage an autoimmune disease in functional medicine, we identify why the immune system is imbalanced, and work to restore that balance.
In simplest terms, the immune system can be divided into two parts. The pro-inflammatory side of the immune system (also called “TH-1″) responds immediately to an invader in the body, such as by surrounding a splinter with pus.
The anti-inflammatory side of the immune system (“TH-2″) has a delayed response and produces antibodies to an invader. These antibodies tag the invader so that if it shows up again, the immune system can respond more quickly.
In a healthy person, these two systems work in balance. However, in the person with an autoimmune disease, one of these systems has become overly dominant.
This polarity between TH-1 and TH-2 underlies autoimmune conditions, and we use nutritional therapies to help restore balance. This helps tame inflammation and autoimmune disease.
TH-17: The new immune player
Studies have increasingly spotlighted another important player in the immune system called TH-17. While appropriate expression of TH-17 is important for immune defense, overactivation of TH-17 plays a key role in autoimmune disease and chronic inflammatory disease. When it comes to quenching flare-ups, TH-17 is our newest target.
This is where the synergy between resveratrol and curcumin come in. Working together, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to dampen the pathways that activate TH-17, thus protecting tissue from inflammation and damage.
Inflammation and excess body fat
An interesting study on the anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol and curcumin also looked at obesity. One of the most unfortunate aspects of excess body fat is that it creates low-level, chronic inflammation.
This chronic inflammation feeds autoimmune disease or chronic inflammatory disorders. This is a double whammy for the person struggling with weight gain due to Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism, an autoimmune thyroid disease. This study found that working together, resveratrol and curcumin significantly reduced inflammation caused by excess fat tissue.
As a side note, the resveratrol curcumin combination is also being studied for its effectiveness in fighting hair loss, psoriasis, joint disease, and other inflammatory disorders.
Resveratrol and curcumin also work by supporting “regulatory T cells.” These cells do what they say—they regulate the activity of TH-17, TH-1, and TH-2, keeping all the facets of the immune system in check. When they don’t work efficiently, the immune system can tip out of balance, thus promoting inflammation and autoimmunity.
Other compounds that successfully support this regulation system include vitamin D3, vitamin A, fish oil or krill oil, specific probioitic strains, nutrients that boost activity ofglutathione, our master antioxidant, and nutrients that act on nitric oxide pathways.
Resveratrol curcumin combo is exciting breakthrough
The exciting new research on TH-17 gives functional medicine practitioners new tools with which to approach autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory disorders. By unwinding vicious cycles of inflammation, they help protect the body, whether it is your knees or your brain, from the damage and degeneration caused by inflammation.
Edited by P.N. Ravindrin., K Nirmal Babu., and K. Sivaraman 2007
This is a comprehensive review of the literature on Turmeric
Effects of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. and curcuminoids on the level of serum and liver lipids, serum apolipoprotein A-I and lipogenic enzymes in rats.
Abstract–Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., a medicinal plant used in Indonesia, has been shown to exert diverse physiological functions. However, little attention has been paid to its effect on lipid metabolism. We have investigated the effects of C. xanthorrhiza on serum and liver lipids, serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, and liver lipogenic enzymes in rats. In rats given a cholesterol-free diet, C. xanthorrhiza decreased the concentrations of serum triglycerides and phospholipids, and liver cholesterol, and increased serum HDL-cholesterol and apo A-I. The activity of liver fatty acid synthase, but not glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, was decreased by the medicinal plant. In rats on a high-cholesterol diet, C. xanthorrhiza did not suppress the elevation of serum cholesterol, although it did decrease liver cholesterol. Curcuminoids prepared from C. xanthorrhiza had no significant effects on the serum and liver lipids. These studies, therefore, indicate that C. xanthorrhiza contains an active principle(s) other than curcuminoids which can modify the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins.
Xanthorrhizol, a natural sesquiterpenoid from Curcuma xanthorrhiza, has an anti-metastatic potential in experimental mouse lung metastasis model.
Xanthorrhizol is a sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. In this study, the anti-metastatic activity of xanthorrhizol was evaluated by using an in vivo mouse lung metastasis model and a tumor mass formation assay.Interestingly, xanthorrhizol dramatically inhibited the formation of tumor nodules in the lung tissue and the intra-abdominal tumor mass formation. Next, to examine the mechanism of the anti-metastatic action of xanthorrhizol in the mouse lung metastasis,expression patterns of the several intracellular signaling molecules were evaluated using the lung tissues with tumor nodules. Higher expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were observed in the metastatic group compared with control, but these were attenuated by the treatment of xanthorrhizol. In conclusion, xanthorrhizol exerts anti-metastatic activity in vivo and this effect could be highly linked to the metastasis- related multiplex signal pathway including ERK, COX-2, and MMP-9.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) /ˈtɜrmərɪk/ is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is native in southwest India, and needs temperatures between 20 and 30°C (68 and 86°F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes, and propagated from some of those rhizomes in the following season.
When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled for about 30–45 minutes and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep-orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in Indian cuisine and curries, for dyeing, and to impart color to mustard condiments. One active ingredient is curcumin, which has a distinctly earthy, slightly bitter, slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell.
Curcuma zanthorrhiza, known as Temulawak, Java ginger or Javanese ginger, is a plant species, belonging to the ginger family. It is known in Javanese as temulawak, inSundanese as koneng gede and in Madurese as temu labak. The scientific name is sometimes written as Curcuma xanthorrhiza, but this is an orthographical variant.
This plant originated from Indonesia, more specifically from Java island, out of which it spread to several places in the biogeographical region Malesia. Currently, most of the temu lawak is cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines. Outside of South East Asia, cultivars may be found also in China, Indochina, Barbados, India, Japan,Korea, the United States and some countries in Europe.
Curcuma zanthorrhiza flourishes up to 1500 m above sea level in a tropical climate. Its rhizomes develop well in loose soil.
Curcuma zanthorrhiza is used as a medicinal plant. The rhizome contains an ethereal oil (5ml per kg), it primarily consists of Sesquiterpenes. There is also a content of Curcumin (at least 1%, Ph. Eur.) and starch. Curcuma zanthorrhiza is used for dyspepsia. It is a spice too.
Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris
The strong bactericidal properties of lauric acid (C12:0), a middle chain-free fatty acid commonly found in natural products, have been shown in a number of studies. However, it has not been demonstrated whether lauric acid can be used for acne treatment as a natural antibiotic against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which promotes follicular inflammation (inflammatory acne). This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of lauric acid against P. acnes both in vitro and in vivo. Incubation of the skin bacteria P. acnes, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) with lauric acid yielded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against the bacterial growth over 15 times lower than those of benzoyl peroxide (BPO). The lower MIC values of lauric acid indicate stronger antimicrobial properties than that of BPO. The detected values of half maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) of lauric acid on P. acnes, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis growth indicate that P. acnes is the most sensitive to lauric acid among these bacteria. In addition, lauric acid did not induce cytotoxicity to human sebocytes. Notably, both intradermal injection and epicutaneous application of lauric acid effectively decreased the number of P. acnes colonized with mouse ears, thereby relieving P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. The obtained data highlight the potential of using lauric acid as an alternative treatment for antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris.